Prirodne katastrofe kao generatori novih razvojnih oblika u turizmu

Natural disasters as generators of new tourism forms

Authors

  • Marija Zeljković Geografski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Studentski trg 3/3, Beograd, Srbija

Keywords:

prirodne katastrofe, turizam katastrofa, mračni turizam, razvoj, rizik

Abstract

Brojni istraživači specijalizovani u različitim naučnim disciplinama nastojali su da kroz višegodišnja istraživanja opišu fenomen prirodnih katastrofa, njihove uzroke i razorne posledice koje izazivaju. Uprkos negativnoj konotaciji koje se najčešće dovodi u vezu sa  geofizičkim, hidrološkim, biološkim, meteorološkim i vanzemaljskim katastrofama, savremena naučna literatura prepoznala je njihov značaj u razvoju savremenih oblika turističkih kretanja. Turizam je delatnost veoma osetljiva na uticaje iz okruženja i kao takva lako može biti oslabljena nestabilnim političkim situacijama, vremenskim prilikama, terorizmom, pa i prirodnim katastrofama. Pojedine katastrofe su razorile turističku privredu, uništile infrastrukturu i atrakcije koje su predstavljale osnovne pokretače razvoja. S druge strane, kao posledica čovekove psihološke potrebe za adrenalinom, otkrivanjem nepoznatog, kontaktom sa rizičnim i opasnim situacijama, na turističkom tržištu se razvila specifična niša zainteresovana za posetu lokacijama pogođenim određenom prirodnom katastrofom, što je otvorilo mogućnost stvaranja alternativnih turističkih oblika, poput turizma katastrofa. Ovaj vid turističkih kretanja ima potencijal da minimizira negativne posledice katastrofa po destinaciju, te kroz privlačenje turista na mesta stradanja, razaranja i katastrofa ojača lokalnu ekonomiju, doprinese oporavku lokalne zajednice kroz podršku, volonterske akcije i materijalnu pomoć. Međutim, preplitanja fenomena turizma koji se u kolektivnoj svesti vezuje za opuštanje, uživanje i zabavu, sa događajima koji su prouzrokovali veliku materijalnu štetu i ljudske žrtve, izaziva kontraverzna pitanja i sukob mišljenja na temu moralnosti organizacije putovanja u sklopu turizma katastrofa i zarade predstavnika turističke privrede po tom osnovu.

Numerous researchers specialized in various scientific disciplines have tried to describe natural disasters, their causes and their devastating consequences. Despite the negative connotation that is most often associated with geophysical, hydrological, biological, meteorological and extraterrestrial disasters, modern scientific literature has recognized their importance in the development of contemporary forms of travel patterns. Tourism is very sensitive to environmental influences and can easily be weakened by unstable political situations, weather conditions, terrorism, and natural disasters. Some disasters have destroyed the tourism economy, the infrastructure and attractions that were the main drivers of development. On the other hand, due to man's psychological need for adrenaline, discovering the unknown, contact with risky and dangerous situations, a specific niche interested in visiting locations affected by certain natural disasters has developed in the tourist market. That created the possibility for the development of alternative tourism, such as disaster tourism. It has the potential to minimize the negative consequences of disasters on the destination. Tourists visit to disaster sites strengthens the local economy and contributes to local community recovery through support, volunteer actions and material assistance. In this case, tourism, associated with relaxation and enjoyment is connected with events that cause material damage and human casualties. Finally, this leads to controversial questions and conflicts of opinion about the morality of organizing trips to disaster sites and making a profit in disaster tourism.

Keywords: natural disasters; disaster tourism; dark tourism; development; risk

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Published

2021-05-22

How to Cite

Zeljković, M. . (2021). Prirodne katastrofe kao generatori novih razvojnih oblika u turizmu: Natural disasters as generators of new tourism forms. Zbornik Radova, 1(1), 13–27. Retrieved from http://zbornik.upravljanje-rizicima.edu.rs/index.php/d/article/view/2