Integrisano upravljanje otpadom u sistemu smanjenja rizika od katastrofa

Integrated waste management in a disaster risk reduction system

Authors

  • Jovana Martinović Naučno-stručno društvo za upravlјanje rizicima u vanrednim situacijama, Beograd

Keywords:

upravljanje otpadom, integrisani pristup, održivi razvoj, percepcija javnosti, inovativna rešenja

Abstract

U Republici Srbiji i širom sveta, nenaučno upravlјanje čvrstim otpadom  i dalјe predstavlјa složen i ozbilјan ekološki problem. Porast urbanizacije, industrijalizacije i eskponencijalnog rasta svetskog stasnovništva odgovorni su za generisanje velikih količina otpadnih materijala, koji su direktno povezani sa zagađenjem zemlјišta, vazduha, vodnih resursa i rizicima po zdravlјe i sigurnost građana. Loše upravlјanje otpadom umnogome podriva uspeh ostvarivanja cilјeva održivog razvoja, čime se naglašava važnost i hitnost prelaska sa tradicionalnih linearnih na integrisane pristupe upravlјanju otpadom. Polazeći od činjenice da je upravlјanje čvrstim otpadom globalno ekološko pitanje koje sadrži društveno-ekonomske, institucionalne, političke i ekološke aspekte, cilј ove studije je deskripcija i analiza različitih strategija integrisanog upravlјanja otpadom u razvijenim zemlјama i zemlјama u razvoju, sa posebnim fokusom na percepciju i učešće javnosti u aktivnostima upravlјanja otpadom, različite izazove i nedostatke sa kojima se suočava upravlјanje čvrstim otpadom i identifikovanje inovativnih rešenja u ovoj oblasti. Iako je teško pronaći dobar sistem upravlјanja koji bi bio primenlјiv u svim zemlјama, nalazi su ukazali na sledeće karakteristike efikasnih i održivih sistema: prilagođenost lokalnim potrebama, minimalna upotreba toksičnih hemikalija, očuvanje resursa, smanjivanje otpada, korišćenje obnovlјivih izvora, uklјučivanje neformalnog sektora u aktivnosti upravlјanja otpadom (uklјučujući prikuplјanje, sortiranje i oporavak recikliranog otpada), veća tehnološka sofisticiranost i inovacije u upravlјanju otpadom, kontinuirano sprovođenje istraživanja i jasna zakonska regulativa. Imajući u vidu da nijedan sistem nije dovolјno efikasan u rešavanju problema otpada usled prekomerne proizvodnje, trošenja i odlaganja, kao i determinisanost stavova i prakse lјudi u upravlјanju otpadom nivoom obrazovanja, starošću i prihodima, neophodno je podizanje svesti i sprovođenje kontinuiranih programa i kampanja obrazovanja javnosti o pravilnom upravlјanju otpadom na svim nivoima funkcionisanja društva. Rezultati preglednog rada doprinose unapređenju postojećeg fonda znanja o različitim aspektima integrisanog upravlјanja čvrstim otpadom.

In the Republic of Serbia and around the world, unscientific solid waste management remains a complex and serious environmental problem. The rise of urbanization, industrialization, and the exponential growth of the world's population are responsible for generating large amounts of waste materials, which are directly related to pollution of land, air, water resources and risks to the health and safety of citizens. Poor waste management greatly undermines the success of achieving sustainable development goals, emphasizing the importance and urgency of moving from traditional linear to integrated approaches to waste management. Starting from the fact that solid waste management is a global environmental issue that contains socio-economic, institutional, political, and environmental aspects, the aim of this study is to describe and analyze different integrated waste management strategies in developed and developing countries, with a special focus on perception and public participation in waste management activities, various challenges, and shortcomings faced by solid waste management and identification of innovative solutions in this area. Although it is difficult to find a good management system that would be applicable in all countries, the findings indicated the following characteristics of efficient and sustainable systems: adaptation to local needs, minimal use of toxic chemicals, conservation of resources, waste reduction, use of renewable sources, involvement of informal sector waste management (including collection, sorting and recovery of recycled waste), greater technological sophistication and innovation in waste management, continuous research and clear legislation. Bearing in mind that no system is efficient enough to solve the problem of waste due to excessive production, consumption, and disposal, as well as the determination of people's attitudes and practices in waste management, education, age, and income, it is necessary to raise awareness and implement continuous public education programs and campaigns. on proper waste management at all levels of society. The results of the review work contribute to the improvement of the existing knowledge fund on various aspects of integrated solid waste management.

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Published

2021-11-26

How to Cite

Martinović, J. (2021). Integrisano upravljanje otpadom u sistemu smanjenja rizika od katastrofa: Integrated waste management in a disaster risk reduction system. Zbornik Radova Naučno-stručnog društva Za Upravljanje Rizicima U Vanrednim Situacijama I Međunarodnog Instituta Za istraživanje Katastrofa (Collection of Papers, Scientific-Professional Society for Disaster Risk Management and International Institute for Disaster Research, 176–204. Retrieved from https://zbornik.upravljanje-rizicima.edu.rs/index.php/d/article/view/23