INTEGRISANO UPRAVLJANJE RIZICIMA OD KATASTROFA: PRIPREMLJENOST, UBLAŽAVANJE, ODGOVOR I OPORAVAK - INTEGRATED DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT: PREPAREDNESS, MITIGATION, RESPONSE, AND RECOVERY

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Poštovani čitaoci, sa zadovoljstvom vam predstavljamo tematski zbornik radova pod nazivom ,,Integrisano upravljanje rizicima od katastrofa: pripremljenost, ublažavanje, odgovor i oporavak". Ovaj zbornik je plod samostalnih istraživačkih aktivnosti predanih profesora i istraživača, te objedinjuje trinaest relevantna naučna rada koji su pažljivo odabrani radi sveobuhvatnog sagledavanja različitih aspekata upravljanja prirodnim i antropogenim katastrofama.

U procesu nastanka zbornika, svaki rad je pažljivo recenziran od strane velikog broja stručnjaka, obezbeđujući visok nivo stručnosti i kvaliteta. Naučni i programski odbor, sačinjen od uglednih profesora sa različitih Univerziteta i Fakulteta, doprineo je sveobuhvatnom razmatranju i odabiru radova koji su zastupljeni u ovom izdanju. Svi radovi u zborniku pružaju vešto i interesantno elaborirane perspektive na raznolike aspekte upravljanja rizicima od katastrofa. Autori su se posvetili analizi i razmatranju najnovijih saznanja iz oblasti pripremljenosti, ublažavanja, odgovora i oporavka nakon katastrofe, pružajući čitaocima dubok uvid u kompleksnost i izazove koji proizlaze iz ovog važnog područja.

Ovim zbornikom želimo podstaknuti dijalog i razmenu ideja među stručnjacima, istraživačima i svima koji se bave pitanjima upravljanja rizicima od katastrofa. Verujemo da će čitaoci pronaći vredne uvide i informacije koje će doprineti daljem unapređenju prakse i politika u oblasti katastrofalnih događaja. Zahvaljujemo se svim autorima, recenzentima i članovima naučnog i programskog odbora na njihovom posvećenom radu i doprinosu stvaranju ovog zbornika. Nadamo se da će ova kompilacija radova služiti kao resurs koji će inspirisati dalja istraživanja i doprineti razvoju efikasnih strategija za upravljanje rizicima od katastrofa.

Sa velikim zadovoljstvom predstavljamo ovu zbirku radova koja obuhvata raznovrsne tematske jedinice u skladu sa aktuelnim trendovima u razvoju studija o katastrofama. Ove tematske jedinice pokrivaju širok spektar, obuhvatajući i prirodne i antropogene opasnosti, a organizovane su u tri glavne kategorije.

Prva grupacija radova fokusira se na pripremu, ublažavanje, odgovor i oporavak od katastrofa izazvanih prirodnim opasnostima. U okviru ove oblasti, istražujemo složene aspekte litosferskih katastrofa poput zemljotresa, klizišta i vulkanskih erupcija. Takođe, bavimo se izazovima koje predstavljaju hidrosferske katastrofe poput poplava, lavina i odrona. Atmosferske katastrofe, uključujući olujne gradonosne pojave, suše i ekstremno niske i visoke temperature, takođe su temeljito obrađene. Biosfera zauzima središnje mesto kako bismo istražili odgovore na epidemije, epizotije, epifitonoze i šumske požare.

Druga grupacija radova dublje istražuje pripremu, ublažavanje, odgovor i oporavak od katastrofa izazvanih antropogenim opasnostima. Sveobuhvatna analiza obuhvata nuklearne i radiološke katastrofe, industrijske nesreće, katastrofe u vezi sa transportom i infrastrukturom, incidente sa opasnim materijama, kao i posledice ratnih razaranja. Analiza se proširuje na katastrofe izazvane požarima i onima pokrenutim upotrebom oružja za masovno uništavanje, uključujući hemijski, biološki, nuklearni i radiološki terorizam. Na kraju, treća grupacija radova ističe inovacije u oblasti pripreme, ublažavanja, odgovora i oporavka od katastrofa izazvanih i prirodnim i antropogenim opasnostima. Ovaj deo predstavlja proaktivne inicijative i nove pristupe koji doprinose evoluciji studija o katastrofama. Fokusiranjem na inovacije, nadamo se da ćemo inspirisati nove perspektive i metodologije koje mogu dodatno unaprediti našu sposobnost zaštite zajednica pred izazovima.

Bogatstvo tema koje su obuhvaćene u ovoj zbirci predstavlja zajednički trud istraživača, naučnika i stručnjaka posvećenih unapređenju našeg razumevanja i pripreme za katastrofe. Svaki rad ima jedinstvenu perspektivu, podržavajući holistički pogled na izazove i prilike inherentne u upravljanju katastrofama. Izražavamo iskreno zahvalnost svim saradnicima na njihovim dragocenim uvidima, i verujemo da će ova zbirka poslužiti kao vredan resurs za akademske krugove, donosioce odluka i stručnjake angažovane u kritičnom polju studija o katastrofama.

Rad pod nazivom ,,Uloga i značaj učitelja u obrazovanju za smanjenje rizika od prirodnih katastrofa" donosi relevantne i duboko promišljene perspektive o važnosti uloge učitelja u procesu edukacije usmerene ka smanjenju rizika od prirodnih katastrofa. U svetlu sve učestalijih nepogoda i nesreća koje pogađaju zajednice širom sveta, obaveza obrazovanja učenika o merama smanjenja rizika postaje od suštinskog značaja. Autor ističe da iako učitelji ne mogu biti jedini nosioci ove odgovornosti, njihova uloga, posebno u kontekstu učionice gde su oči učenika uprte u njih, ima snažan uticaj. Rad istražuje kako učitelji, kao ključni akteri u obrazovnom procesu, mogu iskoristiti potencijal nastavnih sadržaja kako bi učenicima pružili neophodno znanje o smanjenju rizika od prirodnih katastrofa. Autor takođe naglašava da rad sa populacijom koja često predstavlja najranjiviji deo društva dodatno motiviše učitelje da usmeravaju pažnju ka ovom važnom aspektu obrazovanja. Pritom, naglašava se da, osim u okviru redovnih časova, vannastavne aktivnosti pružaju dodatne mogućnosti za sprovođenje edukacije o smanjenju rizika od nepogoda. Tekst postavlja ključna pitanja koja će učitelji sami postaviti sebi dok se upuštaju u rad u oblasti obrazovanja o smanjenju rizika od nepogoda. Neka od pitanja ostaju otvorena, posluživši kao smernice za dalje razmišljanje i prilagođavanje nastave specifičnostima učenika i lokalne situacije. S druge strane, autor pruža odgovore na određena pitanja, čime se pruža podrška učiteljima u njihovom radu u okviru ove važne oblasti. Predmet rada obuhvata detaljnu analizu uloge i značaja učitelja u kontekstu edukacije za smanjenje rizika od prirodnih katastrofa. Kroz istraživanje ciljeva nastavnih programa, autor naglašava kako se pružaju mogućnosti svim učenicima mlađeg školskog uzrasta da steknu znanje i razvijaju svest o merama smanjenja rizika od nepogoda. Ovaj rad je dragocen doprinos razumevanju ključne uloge učitelja u edukaciji koja ide izvan klasičnog obrazovnog okvira i usmerena je ka izgradnji otpornijih i sigurnijih zajednica.

Uprkos međunarodnim izazovima koje priroda postavlja pred nas, fokusiranje na globalnu saradnju može pružiti trajna rešenja. Rad pod naslovom ,,Unapređenje sposobnosti odgovora na poplave - učenje iz iskustva Slovenije za Srbiju i Bosnu i Hercegovinu" predstavlja značajan doprinos razumevanju kako jedna zemlja, u ovom slučaju Slovenija, može koristiti iskustva i mehanizme civilne zaštite na evropskom nivou kako bi unapredila svoje kapacitete odgovora na prirodne katastrofe. Autorica, Jelena Simović iz Gorske službe spasavanja Bosne i Hercegovine, analizom poplava koje su zadesile Sloveniju u avgustu 2023. godine, istražuje kako je efikasno korišćenje EU Mehanizma civilne zaštite pozitivno uticalo na spremnost i kapacitete odgovora te zemlje. Ovaj rad ne samo da pruža uvid u konkretne situacije u Sloveniji, već predstavlja dragocen izvor pouka za druge zemlje u regionu, posebno Srbiju i Bosnu i Hercegovinu na Zapadnom Balkanu. Kroz analizu naučenih lekcija, rad naglašava potencijal za unapređenje sistema civilne zaštite u Srbiji i Bosni i Hercegovini, koristeći iskustvo i mehanizme koji su se pokazali efikasnim u Sloveniji. Posebna pažnja posvećena je regionalnoj saradnji i prekograničnoj saradnji, ukazujući na važnost jačanja otpornosti na katastrofe u regionu koji je sve više izložen prirodnim nepogodama. Rad takođe ističe ključnu potrebu za međunarodnom saradnjom, ne samo u odgovoru na katastrofe, već i u podsticanju pomirenja i saradnje između zemalja na Zapadnom Balkanu. Autorica postavlja temelje za razumevanje uloge međunarodne saradnje u izgradnji stabilnije i sigurnije budućnosti za ceo region. Ovaj pregledni rad je poziv na akciju, poziv na dijalog i saradnju u cilju zajedničkog jačanja sposobnosti odgovora na prirodne katastrofe. Nadamo se da će ovaj rad podstaći dalja istraživanja i inicijative koje će doprineti izgradnji otpornijih i sigurnijih zajednica na Zapadnom Balkanu.

Rad pod nazivom ,,Izvori požara u kazneno-popravnim ustanovama" predstavlja ozbiljan i nužan doprinos oblasti bezbednosti unutar kazneno-popravnog sistema. Autori Dejan Novaković, Martin Matijašević i Željko Lazić donose nam duboko promišljene analize izvora požara u ovim specifičnim institucijama, otvarajući važnu diskusiju o upravljanju rizicima od požara. Dejan Novaković, predstavnik Ministarstva pravde, Uprave za izvršenje krivičnih sankcija, deli svoje praktično iskustvo kao upravnik Kazneno-popravnog zavoda Požarevac-Zabela. Martin Matijašević iz Naučno-stručnog društva za upravljanje rizicima u vanrednim situacijama Beograd, i Željko Lazić iz Akademije za nacionalnu bezbednost Beograd, doprinose multidisciplinarnom pristupu temi, objedinjujući pravne, naučne i bezbednosne perspektive. Rad se bavi složenim pitanjem izvora požara u kazneno-popravnim ustanovama, prepoznajući nezadovoljstvo, slobodu kao motivaciju, kao i ostale rizike povezane sa smeštajem, ishranom i načinom ophođenja lica zaduženih za nadzor i brigu. Autori posebno ističu namerna podmetanja požara, ali i šire izvore rizika poput radionica, kotlarnica, skladišta, električnih instalacija i drugih elemenata prisutnih u ovim ustanovama. Rad takođe naglašava značaj identifikacije i procene svih potencijalnih pretnji i implementaciju adekvatnih mera obezbeđenja. Upravljanje rizikom od požara u kazneno-popravnim ustanovama zahteva holistički pristup, uključujući organizacione i fizičko-tehničke mere. Autori pozivaju na zajednički napor kako bi se razvile strategije koje će ojačati otpornost sistema na izazove koji proizlaze iz rizika od požara. Ovaj rad ima potencijal da inspiriše dalja istraživanja i praksu u oblasti bezbednosti u kazneno-popravnim ustanovama, doprinoseći tako unapređenju sistema i stvaranju sigurnijeg okruženja za sve uključene strane.

Rad pod nazivom ,,Pripremljenost za katastrofe izazvane sušama, ekstremnim temperaturama i olujnim vetrom" istražuje ključne aspekte odgovora na sve učestalije i intenzivnije prirodne katastrofe izazvane klimatskim promenama. Autor Steva Miletić, predstavnik Naučno-stručnog društva za upravljanje rizicima u vanrednim situacijama u Beogradu, pruža dubok uvid u koncept pripremljenosti za efikasan odgovor na atmosferske katastrofe. Sve češće i ozbiljnije prirodne katastrofe postavljaju izazove pred pojedinca, zajednicu i društvo u celini. Ovaj rad se fokusira na ključne elemente pripremljenosti koji omogućavaju adekvatan odgovor pre, tokom i nakon katastrofa. Autor istražuje relevantnu domaću i stranu naučnu literaturu koristeći analizu sadržaja kako bi čitaocima približio koncept pripremljenosti u specifičnom kontekstu opasnosti koje proizlaze iz suša, ekstremno visokih i niskih temperatura, kao i olujnih vetrova. U radu se posebna pažnja posvećuje aktivnostima i merama neophodnim za poboljšanje pripremljenosti i efikasnog postupanja tokom atmosferskih katastrofa. Autor naglašava značaj obučavanja građana i primenljivost različitih metoda edukacije kao ključnih elemenata u podizanju svesti i nivoa pripremljenosti. Ovaj rad ima ambiciju da bude relevantan resurs za sve zainteresovane za unapređenje kapaciteta odgovora na sve učestalije i kompleksnije izazove koje donose prirodne katastrofe. Nadamo se da će čitaoci pronaći korisne smernice za dalje istraživanje i praksu u oblasti upravljanja rizicima od atmosferskih katastrofa.

Ovaj rad, pod nazivom ,,Osnovna obuka pripadnika dobrovoljnih vatrogasnih jedinica," predstavlja značajan doprinos razumevanju uloge dobrovoljnih vatrogasnih jedinica u sistemu zaštite od požara i odgovora na vanredne situacije u Republici Srbiji. Autor Dejan Đurđević, predstavnik Ministarstva unutrašnjih poslova Republike Srbije, Sektor za logistiku, kroz ovaj rad deli sa čitaocima važne korake i napore koji su preduzeti kako bi se ojačale kapacitete dobrovoljnih vatrogasnih jedinica. U prethodnim godinama, Ministarstvo unutrašnjih poslova, kroz rad nadležne službe - Sektor za vanredne situacije, prepoznalo je ključnu ulogu dobrovoljnih vatrogasnih jedinica u zaštiti od požara i odgovoru na vanredne događaje. Tradicija dobrovoljnog angažovanja građana u dobrovoljnim vatrogasnim društvima, posebno u severnoj pokrajini republike, ima dugu istoriju. Autor naglašava važnost podizanja kapaciteta ovih jedinica, s fokusom na organizaciju osnovnih obuka za njihove pripadnike. Osnovna obuka koja je predstavljena u ovom radu omogućava sticanje znanja, veština i stavova potrebnih za obavljanje zadatka pripadnika dobrovoljnih vatrogasnih jedinica. Adresirajući ključne aspekte dobrovoljnog vatrogastva, rad ističe značaj osposobljavanja kao ključnog faktora u efikasnom odgovoru na izazove u oblasti zaštite od požara. Ovaj rad je namenjen svima koji su zainteresovani za unapređenje sistema zaštite od požara u Republici Srbiji, posebno u kontekstu angažovanja dobrovoljnih vatrogasnih jedinica. Autor otvara prostor za dalju diskusiju i istraživanje, ističući važnost konstantnog usavršavanja i edukacije kako bi se građani bolje pripremili za izazove vanrednih situacija.

Rad pod nazivom ,,Upravljanje finansijskim rizikom u prirodnim katastrofama," autora Jovane Saše Pejčić, predstavlja značajan doprinos razumevanju i analizi izazova koje finansijski rizici u prirodnim katastrofama postavljaju pred Republiku Srbiju. Kroz svoje iskustvo u Sektoru za politiku odbrane, Ministarstva odbrane Republike Srbije, autorica nas uvodi u problematiku nedovoljno razvijenog teorijsko-praktičnog okvira u ovoj oblasti, ističući potrebu za sistematskim pristupom upravljanju finansijskim rizicima u prirodnim katastrofama. Nedostatak adekvatnog teorijsko-praktičnog okvira može prouzrokovati ozbiljne probleme državi, njenim institucijama i stanovništvu. Autorica istražuje iskustva drugih zemalja i ukazuje na važnost dobro razrađenih procedura procene i upravljanja finansijskim rizikom tokom i nakon prirodnih katastrofa. Sa porastom učestalosti i ozbiljnosti ovakvih događaja, posebno je ključno razmatrati finansijski aspekt upravljanja rizicima kako bi se izbegle potencijalne teškoće i obezbedila efikasna reakcija države i njenih institucija. Autorica koristi dostupan teorijski fond znanja o ovoj oblasti i prethodna iskustva vezana za finansijske troškove prirodnih katastrofa u Republici Srbiji. Kroz analizu trenutnog stanja i pružanje uvida u postojeće izazove, rad predstavlja osnovu za dalja istraživanja i razvoj efikasnih strategija upravljanja finansijskim rizikom u prirodnim katastrofama. Nadamo se da će ova analiza podstaći razvoj adekvatnih politika i procedura kako bi se unapredila otpornost društva na sve učestalije izazove prirodnih katastrofa.

Rad pod nazivom ,,Taktika zaštite i spasavanja iz ruševina u urbanim sredinama," autora Deana Sretenovića, Vladimira M. Cvetkovića i Vangela Milkovskog, predstavlja važan doprinos oblasti taktike zaštite i spasavanja u vanrednim situacijama, sa posebnim naglaskom na situacije izazvane zemljotresima u urbanim sredinama. Autori, stručnjaci iz različitih oblasti uključujući akademski sektor, naučno-stručno društvo, i vojnu oblast, pružaju sveobuhvatan pregled metoda, tehnika i tehnologija koje se koriste u efikasnom reagovanju na vanredne situacije. U radu se istražuju najefikasniji pristupi zaštite i spašavanja, uzimajući u obzir specifičnosti urbanog okruženja koje često karakterišu kompleksne strukture i gust naseljenosti. Detaljno su razmatrane tehnike pretrage, identifikacije i spašavanja unutar ruševina, sa posebnim osvrtom na koordinaciju između različitih timova i agencija. Autori ističu značaj primene savremenih tehnologija, kao što su senzori, dronovi i robotski sistemi, u cilju povećanja efikasnosti i sigurnosti operacija spasavanja.

Pored toga, analizirani su faktori rizika koji mogu uticati na uspešnost operacija spasavanja, uključujući infrastrukturne izazove, komunikacione prepreke i logistička ograničenja. Na osnovu dubinskih analiza, autori predstavljaju preporuke za unapređenje taktika zaštite i spasavanja u urbanim sredinama, sa krajnjim ciljem smanjenja potencijalnih gubitaka ljudskih života i materijalnih šteta u vanrednim situacijama. Ovaj rad je namenjen svima koji se bave upravljanjem rizicima u vanrednim situacijama, od stručnjaka i istraživača do praktičara i donosilaca odluka. Nadamo se da će ova analiza podstaći dalja istraživanja i unapređenje strategija zaštite i spasavanja u urbanim sredinama širom sveta.

Rad pod nazivom ,,Upravljanje rizicima od potencijalnih klizišta i odrona u rudniku Antracita 'Vrška Čuka' – Avramica," autora Bojane Maksimović, Steve Miletića i Branislava Stakića, pruža sveobuhvatan uvid u kompleksnu problematiku rizika od klizišta, odrona i deformacija terena u eksploatacionom polju Rudnika Antracita "Vrška Čuka" – Avramica. Autori, stručnjaci iz JP PEU – Resavica, razmatraju osnovne podatke o geografskom položaju, geomorfološkim uslovima i delatnosti rudnika, pružajući čitaocima detaljan uvid u izazove koji se javljaju u ovom specifičnom rudarskom okruženju. Rad je konceptualno podeljen u četiri dela. Prvi deo pruža osnovne podatke o lokaciji rudnika i njegovim karakteristikama. Drugi deo analizira mehanizme nastanka odrona i klizišta s geološkog aspekta, pružajući čitaocima dublje razumevanje faktora koji doprinose ovim prirodnim događajima. U trećem delu, autorice pristupaju analizi potencijalnih klizišta i odrona na površini terena, istražujući istovremeno deformacije terena proizvedene podzemnom eksploatacijom uglja. Finalno, četvrti deo pruža konkretne preventivne mere i zadatke za efikasno upravljanje rizicima, uključujući monitoringe i mere sprečavanja potencijalno katastrofalnih situacija. Cilj ovog rada je da identifikuje potencijalno opasne lokacije, unapredi sistem upravljanja rizicima kroz implementaciju monitoringskih sistema i konkretne preventivne mere. Kroz ovu analizu, autorice teže unapređenju sigurnosti radnika, infrastrukture i okoline, pružajući istovremeno relevantan doprinos oblasti upravljanja rizicima u rudarskim operacijama. Rad je namenjen stručnjacima, istraživačima i svim zainteresovanim stranama koje žele bolje razumeti i efikasno upravljati rizicima u sličnim rudarskim okruženjima.

Rad pod nazivom ,,Integrisano smanjenje rizika od katastrofa izazvanih klizištima u Srbiji," autora Gorana Božića, iz Ministarstva odbrane Republike Srbije, predstavlja dragocen doprinos razumevanju i upravljanju rizicima od klizišta u našoj zemlji. Autor, kao stručnjak u ovoj oblasti, duboko istražuje uzroke i posledice klizišta, istovremeno prepoznajući važnost integrisanog pristupa u prevenciji i upravljanju ovim prirodnim katastrofama. U uvodu, Božić naglašava destruktivni uticaj klizišta na životnu sredinu, živote građana i ekonomiju. Osvrćući se na kompleksnost uzroka klizišta, autor ističe značaj razumevanja uticaja čoveka na prirodu, kao i potrebu za preventivnim merama i proceduralnim aktivnostima. Cilj rada je jasno postavljen - ukazati na potencijalne opasnosti, predstaviti mere prevencije i identifikovati ključne determinante u upravljanju rizikom od klizišta. Kroz temeljnu analizu prirodnih i društvenih faktora, rad pruža dubok uvid u kompleksnost problema i nužnost povezanosti različitih aspekata pristupa upravljanju rizikom od klizišta. Autor posebno ističe značaj donošenja racionalnih odluka u raspodeli sredstava i resursa kako bi se efikasno upravljalo rizicima i ublažavale negativne posledice. Ovaj rad je namenjen širokom auditorijumu, uključujući stručnjake u oblasti zaštite životne sredine, geologe, inženjere, ali i donosioce odluka i širu javnost koja želi bolje razumeti i doprineti smanjenju rizika od klizišta u Srbiji. Kroz svoj rad, autor naglašava važnost zajedničkog i koordiniranog pristupa kako bismo unapredili pripremljenost i odgovor na ove prirodne izazove.

Rad pod nazivom ,,Obuka učesnika u kontroli transporta opasne robe i odgovor na hemijske udesе u transportu," autora Dejana Đurđevića iz Ministarstva unutrašnjih poslova Republike Srbije, predstavlja značajan doprinos oblasti bezbednosti i sprečavanja nezgoda prilikom transporta opasnih materija. Autor, stručnjak iz oblasti logistike, prepoznaje hitnost ove teme u kontekstu sve većeg korišćenja opasnih materija u savremenom društvu. U uvodu, Đurđević ističe da su razvoj industrije i tehnološke inovacije doveli do porasta broja opasnih materija, što predstavlja potencijalnu pretnju ljudskom zdravlju i životnoj sredini. Posebno se naglašava da je rizik od nesreća prilikom transporta opasnih materija izuzetno povećan, te je neophodna stalna obuka i kontrola učesnika u transportu kako bi se smanjile opasnosti i obezbedila adekvatna reakcija u slučaju udesa. Autor naglašava da je preventivno delovanje i stalna kontrola ključna u očuvanju bezbednosti i stabilnosti države. Obuka učesnika u kontroli transporta opasne robe omogućava sticanje neophodnih znanja, veština i stavova za efikasno obavljanje zadataka u prevenciji i odgovoru na vanredne događaje sa opasnim materijama. Ovaj rad namenjen je ne samo stručnjacima u oblasti logistike i bezbednosti, već i širokoj javnosti koja je zainteresovana za održavanje visokih standarda bezbednosti u transportu opasnih materija. Kroz svoj rad, autor poziva na zajednički napor u smanjenju rizika i unapređenju bezbednosti prilikom transporta opasnih materija, čime se doprinosi očuvanju javne bezbednosti i zaštiti životne sredine.

Rad pod nazivom ,,Upravljanje u vanrednim situacijama nastalim terorističkim aktom" autora Adisa S. Dazdarevića iz Fakulteta za pravo, bezbednost i menadžment Konstantin Veliki, predstavlja dubinsku analizu izazova i potreba u domenu vanrednih situacija, s posebnim fokusom na situacije izazvane terorističkim aktima. Autor, stručnjak iz oblasti kriminalistike i bezbednosti, prepoznaje kompleksnost savremenih izazova u vezi sa vanrednim situacijama koje proizlaze iz terorističkih aktivnosti. U uvodu, Dazdarević naglašava značaj razumevanja i efikasnog upravljanja ovakvim situacijama u okviru društva. U radu se detaljno razmatraju različiti aspekti terorizma kao izazova po bezbednost. Autor istražuje kako terorizam utiče na sve aspekte društva, od ekonomske do socijalne sfere. Posebna pažnja posvećena je trenutnim i dugotrajnim posledicama terorističkih akata, kao i neophodnom društvenom naporu za sprečavanje i rešavanje ovakvih vanrednih situacija. Cilj rada je, kako autor navodi, sagledati postojeći sistem upravljanja vanrednim situacijama nastalim terorističkim aktom, identifikovati eventualne propuste i nedostatke u tom sistemu, te predložiti efikasne načine za poboljšanje i ispravljanje postojećih stanja. Ovaj rad je od posebnog značaja za stručnjake u oblasti bezbednosti, istraživače, kao i sve one koji žele dublje razumeti i doprineti unapređenju sistema upravljanja vanrednim situacijama izazvanim terorističkim aktivnostima. Kroz analizu i preporuke, Dazdarević poziva na promišljeno i efikasno delovanje u cilju jačanja bezbednosti i otpornosti društva na terorističke pretnje.

Rad ,,Upravljanje rizicima u bankarskom sistemu," autora Nikole Vidovića i Hatidze Beriše, predstavlja sveobuhvatnu analizu ključnih aspekata upravljanja rizicima u bankarskom sektoru. Ovaj rad proizlazi iz istraživanja koje je sprovedeno na Ekonomskom fakultetu Univerziteta u Beogradu i Univerzitetu odbrane u Beogradu. Autori, stručnjaci iz oblasti ekonomije i odbrane, zajednički pristupaju analizi institucionalnih okvira bankarskog poslovanja, pri čemu se fokusiraju na procese upravljanja rizicima u bankarskom sektoru. Cilj istraživanja bio je analizirati dosadašnja iskustva u primeni regulatornih i poslovnih politika banaka, posebno se usmeravajući na sisteme upravljanja rizicima. U radu su prikazani uticaji ekonomske politike države i tržišta na procese upravljanja rizicima u bankama. Autori istražuju izazove s kojima se banke suočavaju, bilo da su interni ili eksterni, i istražuju primenu sporazuma Bazelskog komiteta kao obaveznog okvira za upravljanje rizicima. Poseban naglasak u radu stavljen je na savremene izazove, uključujući uticaj digitalizacije i tehnoloških inovacija na bankarski sektor. Autori pružaju uvid u načine na koje se veštačka inteligencija, softverska i analitička rešenja koriste zaštite, praćenja, i kontrolu rizika u novom okruženju. Ovaj rad predstavlja dragocen doprinos razumevanju dinamike bankarskih rizika, pružajući dublji uvid u institucionalne, regulatorne, i tehnološke aspekte koji oblikuju upravljanje rizicima u bankarskom sektoru. On će biti od interesa za sve stručnjake u oblasti bankarstva, ekonomista, i istraživače koji žele sagledati kompleksnost savremenog bankarskog poslovanja i strategije upravljanja rizicima.

U ime autora, sa velikim zadovoljstvom izražavam duboku zahvalnost svima koji su pridoneli stvaranju ove zbirke radova. Posebne reči zahvalnosti upućujemo Naučno-stručnom društvu za upravljanje rizicima u vanrednim situacijama i Međunarodnom institutu za istraživanje katastrofa, koji su preuzeli ulogu izdavača, pruživši podršku i platformu za objavljivanje ovih naučnih doprinosa. Zahvaljujemo se i našim recenzentima, koji su posvetili vreme, strpljenje i pažnju prilikom detaljne analize i unapređivanja svakog pojedinačnog rada. Njihova stručnost i konstruktivna povratna informacija igrali su ključnu ulogu u obezbeđivanju visokog standarda ovog zbornika.

Takođe, želim izraziti posebnu zahvalnost saradnicima Naučno-stručnog društva za upravljanje rizicima u vanrednim situacijama, čije predanosti i doprinosa su bili od suštinskog značaja tokom procesa pripreme i objavljivanja ovog zbornika. Njihova podrška i angažman doprineli su ne samo kvalitetu radova već i širem doprinosu oblasti upravljanja rizicima. Ova zbirka radova ne bi bila moguća bez saradnje, posvećenosti i stručnosti svih učesnika. Nadamo se da će ova knjiga postati resurs koji će inspirisati dalja istraživanja i doprineti unapređenju upravljanja rizicima u vanrednim situacijama. Još jednom, izražavamo iskrenu zahvalnost svima koji su svojim doprinosom omogućili realizaciju ovog projekta.

Beograd, februar 2024. godine                   

Prof. dr Vladimir M. Cvetković

Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet bezbednosti

Naučno-stručno društvo za upravljanje rizicima u vanrednim situacijama

Dear readers, we are pleased to present a thematic collection of papers entitled "Integrated Disaster Risk Management: Preparedness, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery." This collection is the result of independent research activities by dedicated professors and researchers, bringing together thirteen relevant scientific papers carefully selected to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects of natural and anthropogenic disaster management.

In the process of creating this collection, each paper underwent careful review by a large number of experts, ensuring a high level of expertise and quality. The Scientific and Program Committee, composed of distinguished professors from various universities and faculties, contributed to the comprehensive consideration and selection of papers included in this edition. All papers in the collection offer skillfully elaborated perspectives on diverse aspects of disaster risk management. The authors have dedicated themselves to the analysis and consideration of the latest knowledge in the fields of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery after disasters, providing readers with a deep insight into the complexity and challenges arising from this important area.

With this collection, we aim to encourage dialogue and the exchange of ideas among experts, researchers, and all those involved in disaster risk management issues. We believe that readers will find valuable insights and information that will contribute to further improving practices and policies in the field of catastrophic events. We express our gratitude to all the authors, reviewers, and members of the Scientific and Program Committee for their dedicated work and contribution to the creation of this collection. We hope that this compilation of papers will serve as a resource inspiring further research and contribute to the development of effective strategies for disaster risk management.

We take great pleasure in presenting this collection, which covers diverse thematic units in line with current trends in the development of disaster studies. These thematic units span a wide range, encompassing both natural and anthropogenic hazards, and are organized into three main categories.

The first grouping of papers focuses on the preparation, mitigation, response, and recovery from disasters caused by natural hazards. Within this area, we explore the complex aspects of lithospheric disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic eruptions. We also address the challenges posed by hydrospheric disasters like floods, avalanches, and mudslides. Atmospheric disasters, including stormy hail events, droughts, and extremely low and high temperatures, are also thoroughly examined. The biosphere takes center stage as we explore responses to epidemics, epizootics, epiphytotics, and forest fires.

The second grouping of papers delves deeper into the preparation, mitigation, response, and recovery from disasters caused by anthropogenic hazards. The comprehensive analysis covers nuclear and radiological disasters, industrial accidents, disasters related to transportation and infrastructure, incidents with hazardous materials, as well as the consequences of war-related destruction. The analysis extends to disasters caused by fires and those triggered by the use of weapons of mass destruction, including chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological terrorism. Finally, the third grouping of papers highlights innovations in the preparation, mitigation, response, and recovery from disasters caused by both natural and anthropogenic hazards. This section presents proactive initiatives and new approaches contributing to the evolution of disaster studies. By focusing on innovations, we hope to inspire new perspectives and methodologies that can further enhance our ability to protect communities from challenges.

The richness of topics covered in this collection represents the collective effort of researchers, scientists, and experts dedicated to advancing our understanding and preparation for disasters. Each paper offers a unique perspective, supporting a holistic view of the challenges and opportunities inherent in disaster management. We express sincere thanks to all contributors for their valuable insights and believe that this collection will serve as a valuable resource for academic circles, decision-makers, and professionals engaged in the critical field of disaster studies.

The paper titled "The Role and Significance of Teachers in Education for Natural Disaster Risk Reduction" provides relevant and deeply thoughtful perspectives on the importance of the role of teachers in the educational process aimed at reducing the risk of natural disasters. In light of the increasingly frequent disasters and accidents affecting communities worldwide, the obligation to educate students about risk reduction measures becomes essential. The author emphasizes that while teachers cannot be the sole bearers of this responsibility, their role, especially in the classroom where students look up to them, has a powerful impact. The paper explores how teachers, as key actors in the educational process, can harness the potential of educational content to provide students with the necessary knowledge about reducing the risk of natural disasters. The author also highlights that working with a population that often represents the most vulnerable part of society further motivates teachers to focus on this important aspect of education. Additionally, the paper emphasizes that extracurricular activities provide additional opportunities for conducting education on disaster risk reduction. The text poses key questions that teachers will ask themselves as they engage in the field of disaster risk reduction education. Some questions remain open, serving as guidelines for further reflection and adaptation of teaching to the specifics of students and the local situation. On the other hand, the author provides answers to certain questions, offering support to teachers in their work in this important area. The subject of the paper includes a detailed analysis of the role and significance of teachers in the context of education for the reduction of natural disaster risks. Through the exploration of educational program objectives, the author highlights how opportunities are provided for all younger school-age students to gain knowledge and develop awareness of measures to reduce the risk of disasters. This paper is a valuable contribution to understanding the key role of teachers in education that goes beyond the classical educational framework and is aimed at building more resilient and safer communities.

Despite the international challenges posed by nature, focusing on global cooperation can provide lasting solutions. The paper titled "Improving Flood Response Capacities - Learning from Slovenia's Experience for Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina" represents a significant contribution to understanding how one country, in this case, Slovenia, can use the experiences and mechanisms of civil protection at the European level to enhance its capacities to respond to natural disasters. The author, Jelena Simović from the Mountain Rescue Service of Bosnia and Herzegovina, through the analysis of floods that hit Slovenia in August 2023, explores how the effective use of the EU Civil Protection Mechanism positively impacted the readiness and response capacities of that country. This paper not only provides insights into specific situations in Slovenia but also serves as a valuable source of lessons for other countries in the region, especially Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Western Balkans. Through the analysis of lessons learned, the paper highlights the potential for improving civil protection systems in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, using the experience and mechanisms that have proven effective in Slovenia. Special attention is given to regional and cross-border cooperation, emphasizing the importance of strengthening disaster resilience in a region increasingly exposed to natural disasters. The paper also underscores the critical need for international cooperation, not only in responding to disasters but also in promoting reconciliation and collaboration between countries in the Western Balkans. The author lays the foundation for understanding the role of international cooperation in building a more stable and secure future for the entire region. This comprehensive review is a call to action, a call for dialogue and collaboration to jointly strengthen response capacities to natural disasters. We hope that this paper will stimulate further research and initiatives that will contribute to building more resilient and safer communities in the Western Balkans.

The paper titled "Sources of Fires in Penal Institutions" represents a serious and necessary contribution to the field of security within the penal system. Authors Dejan Novaković, Martin Matijašević, and Željko Lazić provide deeply considered analyses of fire sources in these specific institutions, opening an important discussion on fire risk management. Dejan Novaković, representing the Ministry of Justice, Administration for the Execution of Criminal Sanctions, shares practical experience as the director of the Penal and Correctional Institute Požarevac-Zabela. Martin Matijašević from the Scientific and Expert Society for Risk Management in Emergencies in Belgrade, and Željko Lazić from the Academy for National Security in Belgrade, contribute to a multidisciplinary approach to the topic, combining legal, scientific, and security perspectives. The paper addresses the complex issue of fire sources in penal institutions, recognizing dissatisfaction, freedom as motivation, as well as other risks related to accommodation, food, and the treatment of personnel responsible for supervision and care. The authors particularly highlight intentional fire setting but also broader sources of risk such as workshops, boiler rooms, storage areas, electrical installations, and other elements present in these institutions. The paper also emphasizes the importance of identifying and assessing all potential threats and implementing adequate security measures. Fire risk management in penal institutions requires a holistic approach, including organizational and physical-technical measures. The authors call for a joint effort to develop strategies that will strengthen the resilience of the system to challenges arising from the risk of fires. This paper has the potential to inspire further research and practice in the field of security in penal institutions, contributing to the improvement of the system and creating a safer environment for all stakeholders involved.

The paper titled "Preparedness for Disasters Caused by Droughts, Extreme Temperatures, and Storm Winds" explores key aspects of responding to increasingly frequent and intense natural disasters caused by climate change. Author Steva Miletić, representing the Scientific and Expert Society for Risk Management in Emergencies in Belgrade, provides a deep insight into the concept of preparedness for an effective response to atmospheric disasters. More frequent and serious natural disasters present challenges to individuals, communities, and society as a whole. This paper focuses on key elements of preparedness that enable an adequate response before, during, and after disasters. The author examines relevant domestic and foreign scientific literature using content analysis to familiarize readers with the concept of preparedness in the specific context of hazards arising from droughts, extremely high and low temperatures, as well as storm winds. The paper pays special attention to activities and measures necessary to improve preparedness and effective handling during atmospheric disasters. The author emphasizes the importance of training citizens and the applicability of various educational methods as key elements in raising awareness and preparedness levels. This paper aspires to be a relevant resource for all interested in enhancing response capacities to increasingly complex challenges posed by natural disasters. We hope that readers will find useful guidelines for further research and practice in the field of atmospheric disaster risk management.

This paper, titled "Basic Training of Members of Volunteer Fire Brigades," represents a significant contribution to understanding the role of volunteer fire brigades in the fire protection and emergency response system in the Republic of Serbia. Author Dejan Đurđević, representing the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Serbia, Logistics Sector, through this paper shares important steps and efforts taken to strengthen the capacities of volunteer fire brigades. In recent years, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, through the relevant service - the Sector for Emergency Situations, has recognized the crucial role of volunteer fire brigades in fire protection and response to emergency events. The tradition of voluntary engagement of citizens in volunteer fire departments, especially in the northern province of the republic, has a long history. The author emphasizes the importance of building the capacities of these units, with a focus on organizing basic training for their members. The basic training presented in this paper enables the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for the tasks of members of volunteer fire brigades. Addressing key aspects of volunteer firefighting, the paper highlights the importance of training as a crucial factor in an effective response to challenges in the field of fire protection. This paper is intended for everyone interested in improving the fire protection system in the Republic of Serbia, especially in the context of engaging volunteer fire brigades. The author opens the door for further discussion and research, emphasizing the importance of constant improvement and education to better prepare citizens for the challenges of emergency situations.

The work titled "Financial Risk Management in Natural Disasters," authored by Jovana Saša Pejčić, represents a significant contribution to understanding and analyzing the challenges that financial risks in natural disasters pose to the Republic of Serbia. Drawing on her experience in the Defense Policy Sector of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Serbia, the author introduces us to the issues of the insufficiently developed theoretical-practical framework in this field, emphasizing the need for a systematic approach to managing financial risks in natural disasters. The lack of an adequate theoretical-practical framework can lead to serious problems for the state, its institutions, and the population. The author explores the experiences of other countries and highlights the importance of well-developed procedures for assessing and managing financial risks during and after natural disasters. Given the increasing frequency and severity of such events, it is crucial to consider the financial aspect of risk management to avoid potential difficulties and ensure an effective response from the state and its institutions. The author utilizes the available theoretical knowledge in this field and previous experiences related to the financial costs of natural disasters in the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the current situation and providing insights into existing challenges, the work serves as a foundation for further research and the development of effective strategies for managing financial risk in natural disasters. We hope that this analysis will stimulate the development of appropriate policies and procedures to enhance society's resilience to the increasingly common challenges of natural disasters.

The work titled "Tactics of Protection and Rescue from Rubble in Urban Environments," authored by Dean Sretenović, Vladimir M. Cvetković, and Vangel Milkovski, is a significant contribution to the field of tactics for protection and rescue in emergency situations, with a particular focus on situations caused by earthquakes in urban environments. The authors, experts from various fields including the academic sector, scientific-professional society, and the military, provide a comprehensive overview of methods, techniques, and technologies used in an efficient response to emergency situations. The work explores the most effective approaches to protection and rescue, considering the specificities of urban environments characterized by complex structures and high population density. Techniques for searching, identifying, and rescuing within rubble are thoroughly examined, with a special emphasis on coordination between different teams and agencies. The authors highlight the importance of applying modern technologies, such as sensors, drones, and robotic systems, to increase the efficiency and safety of rescue operations. Additionally, the work analyzes risk factors that can affect the success of rescue operations, including infrastructure challenges, communication barriers, and logistical constraints. Based on in-depth analyses, the authors present recommendations for improving tactics for protection and rescue in urban environments, with the ultimate goal of reducing potential human and material losses in emergency situations. This work is intended for anyone involved in risk management in emergency situations, from experts and researchers to practitioners and decision-makers. We hope that this analysis will stimulate further research and the improvement of protection and rescue strategies in urban environments worldwide.

The work titled "Risk Management of Potential Landslides and Slope Failures in the Anthracite Mine 'Vrška Čuka' – Avramica," authored by Bojana Maksimović, Steve Miletić, and Branislav Stakić, provides a comprehensive insight into the complex issue of landslide risk, slope failures, and terrain deformations in the operational field of the Anthracite Mine "Vrška Čuka" – Avramica. The authors, experts from the Public Enterprise for Underground Coal Exploitation – Resavica, examine basic data on the geographical location, geomorphological conditions, and mining activities of the mine, offering readers a detailed understanding of the challenges in this specific mining environment. The work is conceptually divided into four parts. The first part provides basic information about the mine's location and characteristics. The second part analyzes the mechanisms of slope failures and landslides from a geological perspective, providing readers with a deeper understanding of factors contributing to these natural events. In the third part, the authors address the analysis of potential landslides and slope failures on the surface, concurrently investigating terrain deformations produced by underground coal mining. Finally, the fourth part provides concrete preventive measures and tasks for effective risk management, including monitoring and measures to prevent potentially catastrophic situations. The goal of this work is to identify potentially dangerous locations, improve the risk management system through the implementation of monitoring systems and concrete preventive measures. Through this analysis, the authors aim to enhance the safety of workers, infrastructure, and the environment while making a relevant contribution to the field of risk management in mining operations. The work is intended for experts, researchers, and all stakeholders interested in better understanding and effectively managing risks in similar mining environments.

The work titled "Integrated Disaster Risk Reduction Caused by Landslides in Serbia," authored by Goran Božić from the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Serbia, represents a valuable contribution to understanding and managing landslide risks in our country. As an expert in this field, the author deeply explores the causes and consequences of landslides, simultaneously recognizing the importance of an integrated approach in the prevention and management of these natural disasters. In the introduction, Božić emphasizes the destructive impact of landslides on the environment, the lives of citizens, and the economy. Reflecting on the complexity of landslide causes, the author highlights the significance of understanding human impact on nature, as well as the need for preventive measures and procedural activities. The aim of the work is clearly stated – to point out potential dangers, present prevention measures, and identify key determinants in landslide risk management. Through a thorough analysis of natural and social factors, the work provides a deep insight into the complexity of the problem and the necessity of connecting different aspects of risk management approaches. The author particularly emphasizes the importance of making rational decisions in allocating funds and resources to effectively manage risks and mitigate negative consequences. This work is intended for a broad audience, including environmental protection experts, geologists, engineers, as well as decision-makers and the general public interested in better understanding and contributing to the reduction of landslide risks in Serbia. Through this work, the author emphasizes the importance of a collective and coordinated approach to improve preparedness and response to these natural challenges.

The work titled "Training of Participants in Hazardous Materials Transport Control and Response to Chemical Accidents in Transport," authored by Dejan Đurđević from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Serbia, is a significant contribution to the field of safety and accident prevention during the transport of hazardous materials. The author, an expert in logistics, recognizes the urgency of this topic in the context of the increasing use of hazardous materials in modern society. In the introduction, Đurđević emphasizes that the development of industry and technological innovations has led to an increase in the number of hazardous materials, posing a potential threat to human health and the environment. It is particularly emphasized that the risk of accidents during the transport of hazardous materials is extremely high, necessitating continuous training and control of transport participants to reduce hazards and ensure an adequate response in case of accidents. The author stresses that preventive action and constant control are crucial in maintaining the safety and stability of the state. Training participants in the control of hazardous goods transport enables them to acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes for effectively performing tasks in the prevention and response to emergencies involving hazardous materials. This work is intended not only for experts in logistics and safety but also for the general public interested in maintaining high safety standards in the transport of hazardous materials. Through this work, the author calls for a joint effort to reduce risks and improve safety in the transport of hazardous materials, contributing to the preservation of public safety and environmental protection.


The paper titled "Emergency Management Arising from a Terrorist Act" by Adis S. Dazdarević from the Faculty of Law, Security, and Management Konstantin Veliki provides a thorough analysis of challenges and needs in the field of emergencies, with a specific focus on situations caused by terrorist acts. The author, an expert in criminology and security, recognizes the complexity of contemporary challenges related to emergencies arising from terrorist activities. In the introduction, Dazdarević emphasizes the importance of understanding and effectively managing such situations within society. The paper extensively examines various aspects of terrorism as a security challenge, exploring how terrorism affects all aspects of society, from the economic to the social sphere. Special attention is given to the current and long-term consequences of terrorist acts, as well as the necessary societal efforts to prevent and address such emergencies. The goal of the paper is, as the author states, to assess the existing system of managing emergencies arising from terrorist acts, identify potential flaws and deficiencies in that system, and propose efficient ways to improve and rectify the current state. This paper is of particular significance for security experts, researchers, and all those who wish to gain a deeper understanding and contribute to the improvement of the emergency management system arising from terrorist activities. Through analysis and recommendations, Dazdarević calls for thoughtful and effective actions to strengthen the security and resilience of society against terrorist threats.

The paper "Risk Management in the Banking System" by Nikola Vidović and Hatidza Beriša represents a comprehensive analysis of key aspects of risk management in the banking sector. This paper stems from research conducted at the Faculty of Economics, University of Belgrade, and the University of Defense in Belgrade. The authors, experts in economics and defense, jointly approach the analysis of institutional frameworks in banking, focusing on risk management processes in the banking sector. The research aimed to analyze previous experiences in the application of regulatory and business policies of banks, with a specific focus on risk management systems. The paper demonstrates the impact of the state's economic policy and market on risk management processes in banks. The authors explore challenges faced by banks, whether internal or external, and examine the implementation of the Basel Committee agreements as a mandatory framework for risk management. The paper particularly emphasizes contemporary challenges, including the influence of digitization and technological innovations on the banking sector. The authors provide insights into how artificial intelligence, software, and analytical solutions are used for protection, monitoring, and risk control in the new environment. This paper represents a valuable contribution to understanding the dynamics of banking risks, offering a deeper insight into institutional, regulatory, and technological aspects that shape risk management in the banking sector. It will be of interest to banking experts, economists, and researchers seeking to understand the complexity of modern banking and risk management strategies.

On behalf of the authors, I express sincere gratitude to everyone who contributed to the creation of this collection of papers. Special thanks go to the Scientific-Expert Society for Emergency Risk Management and the International Institute for Disaster Research, who have taken on the role of publishers, providing support and a platform for publishing these scientific contributions. We also thank our reviewers, who dedicated their time, patience, and attention to the detailed analysis and improvement of each individual paper. Their expertise and constructive feedback played a crucial role in ensuring the high standard of this collection.

I also want to express special thanks to the collaborators of the Scientific-Expert Society for Emergency Risk Management, whose dedication and contributions were essential during the preparation and publication process of this collection. Their support and engagement contributed not only to the quality of the papers but also to the broader contribution to the field of risk management. This collection of papers would not have been possible without the collaboration, dedication, and expertise of all participants. We hope that this book will become a resource inspiring further research and contributing to the improvement of risk management in emergency situations. Once again, we express sincere gratitude to everyone who, through their contribution, made the realization of this project possible.

Belgrade, February 2024

Prof. Dr. Vladimir M. Cvetković

University of Belgrade, Faculty of Security

Scientific-Expert Society for Disaster Risk Management

Published: 2024-01-18

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